Top K Frequent Elements

Heap, Sort

Given a non-empty array of integers, return the k most frequent elements.

Example 1:

Input: nums = [1,1,1,2,2,3], k = 2
Output: [1,2]

Example 2:

Input: nums = [1], k = 1
Output: [1]

Note:

  • You may assume k is always valid, 1 ≤ k ≤ number of unique elements.
  • Your algorithm's time complexity must be better than O(n log n), where n is the array's size.

Analysis

Ref: https://leetcode.com/problems/top-k-frequent-elements/discuss/81635/3-Java-Solution-using-Array-MaxHeap-TreeMap

Max Heap

O(N + N log(N-k))

Poll Max Heap when maxheap.size() > hashmap.size() - k

Min Heap

O(N + (N-k)lg k)

Steps

  • build a counter map that maps a num to its frequency
  • build a heap/priority queue that keeps track of k most significant entries
  • iterate through the final heap and get the keys

Bucket

O(N)

For [1, 1, 1, 2, 2, 2, 3, 3, 3] and k=2, result=[1,2,3]

Solution

Max Heap

// use maxHeap. Put entry into maxHeap so we can always poll a number with largest frequency
public class Solution {
    public List<Integer> topKFrequent(int[] nums, int k) {
        Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<>();
        for(int n: nums){
            map.put(n, map.getOrDefault(n,0)+1);
        }

        PriorityQueue<Map.Entry<Integer, Integer>> maxHeap = 
                         new PriorityQueue<>((a,b)->(b.getValue()-a.getValue()));
        for(Map.Entry<Integer,Integer> entry: map.entrySet()){
            maxHeap.add(entry);
        }

        List<Integer> res = new ArrayList<>();
        while(res.size()<k){
            Map.Entry<Integer, Integer> entry = maxHeap.poll();
            res.add(entry.getKey());
        }
        return res;
    }
}

Max Heap 2 - Time: O(Nlog(N - K) + N); Space: O(N)

public class Solution {

    public List<Integer> topKFrequent(int[] nums, int k) {
        List<Integer> res=new ArrayList<>();
        if(nums==null||nums.length==0) return res;
        Map<Integer,Integer> map=new HashMap<>();
        for(int num:nums){                  //count frequency
            map.put(num,map.getOrDefault(num,0)+1);
        }
        //maxHeap, Comparator:map.value 
        PriorityQueue<Integer> pq=new PriorityQueue<>((a,b)->map.get(b)-map.get(a));
        for(int key:map.keySet()){
            pq.offer(key);
            if(pq.size()>map.size()-k)
                res.add(pq.poll()); //k in res,(n-k)in pq
        } 
        return res;
    }
}

Min Heap - Time: O(NlogK + N); Space: O(N)

public List<Integer> topKFrequent(int[] nums, int k) {
    Map<Integer, Integer> counterMap = new HashMap<>();
    for(int num : nums) {
        int count = counterMap.getOrDefault(num, 0);
        counterMap.put(num, count+1);
    }

    PriorityQueue<Map.Entry<Integer, Integer>> pq = new PriorityQueue<>((a, b) -> a.getValue()-b.getValue());
    for(Map.Entry<Integer, Integer> entry : counterMap.entrySet()) {
        pq.offer(entry);
        if(pq.size() > k) pq.poll();
    }

    List<Integer> res = new LinkedList<>();
    while(!pq.isEmpty()) {
        res.add(0, pq.poll().getKey());
    }
    return res;
}

Bucket

// use an array to save numbers into different bucket whose index is the frequency
public class Solution {
    public List<Integer> topKFrequent(int[] nums, int k) {
        Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<>();
        for(int n: nums){
            map.put(n, map.getOrDefault(n,0) + 1);
        }

        // corner case: if there is only one number in nums, we need the bucket has index 1.
        List<Integer>[] bucket = new List[nums.length + 1];
        for(int n:map.keySet()){
            int freq = map.get(n);
            if(bucket[freq] == null)
                bucket[freq] = new LinkedList<>();
            bucket[freq].add(n);
        }

        List<Integer> res = new LinkedList<>();
        for(int i = bucket.length-1; i>0 && res.size() < k; --i){
            if(bucket[i] != null){
                res.addAll(bucket[i]);
            }
        }

        return res;
    }
}

TreeMap - Time: O(N + NlogM); Space: O(N)

// use treeMap. Use freqncy as the key so we can get all freqencies in order
public class Solution {
    public List<Integer> topKFrequent(int[] nums, int k) {
        Map<Integer, Integer> map = new HashMap<>();
        for(int n: nums){
            map.put(n, map.getOrDefault(n,0)+1);
        }

        TreeMap<Integer, List<Integer>> freqMap = new TreeMap<>();
        for(int num : map.keySet()){
           int freq = map.get(num);
           if(!freqMap.containsKey(freq)){
               freqMap.put(freq, new LinkedList<>());
           }
           freqMap.get(freq).add(num);
        }

        List<Integer> res = new ArrayList<>();
        while(res.size()<k){
            Map.Entry<Integer, List<Integer>> entry = freqMap.pollLastEntry();
            res.addAll(entry.getValue());
        }
        return res;
    }
}

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