Heap

Heap 操作

  • 插入: 将新元素放到heap[size+1]的位置每次比较它的它父亲元素,如果小于它的父亲,证明现在不满 足堆的性质,然后向上Sift Up

  • 删除: 将根节点和最后一个节点进行交换如果该节点大于其中一个儿子,那么将其与其较小的儿子进行交换做Sift Down,直到该节点的儿子均大于它的值,或者它的儿子为空

Heap

Interface 接口
• O(logN) Push -> Sift Up
• O(logN) Pop -> Sift Down • O(1) Top
• O(N) Delete

Heap Application

Priority Queue: Priority queues can be efficiently implemented using Binary Heap because it supports insert(), delete() and extractmax(), decreaseKey() operations in O(logn) time.

https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/binary-heap/

Heap Template

Priority Queue in Java

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/6065710/how-does-javas-priorityqueue-differ-from-a-min-heap

The default PriorityQueue is implemented with Min-Heap, that is the top element is the minimum one in the heap. In order to implement a max-heap, you can create your own Comparator:

import java.util.Comparator;

public class MyComparator implements Comparator<Integer>
{
    public int compare( Integer x, Integer y )
    {
        return y - x;
    }
}
PriorityQueue minHeap = new PriorityQueue(); // default natural ordering; min-heap
PriorityQueue maxHeap = new PriorityQueue(size, new MyComparator());

HashHeap

https://github.com/awangdev/LintCode/blob/master/Java/HashHeap.java

// HashHeap Implementation

// 接口
// • O(logN) Push -> Sift Up
// • O(logN) Pop -> Sift Down • O(1) Top
// • O(logN) Delete

class HashHeap {
    ArrayList<Integer> heap;
    String mode;
    int size_t;
    HashMap<Integer, Node> hash;

    class Node {
        public Integer id;
        public Integer num;

        Node(Node now) {
            id = now.id;
            num = now.num;
        }

        Node(Integer first, Integer second) {
            this.id = first;
            this.num = second;
        }
    }

    public HashHeap(String mod) {
        // TODO Auto-generated constructor stub
        heap = new ArrayList<Integer>();
        mode = mod;
        hash = new HashMap<Integer, Node>();
        size_t = 0;
    }

    int peak() {
        return heap.get(0);
    }

    int size() {
        return size_t;
    }

    Boolean empty() {
        return (heap.size() == 0);
    }

    int parent(int id) {
        if (id == 0) {
            return -1;
        }
        return (id - 1) / 2;
    }

    int lson(int id) {
        return id * 2 + 1;
    }

    int rson(int id) {
        return id * 2 + 2;
    }

    boolean comparesmall(int a, int b) {
        if (a <= b) {
            if (mode == "min")
                return true;
            else
                return false;
        } else {
            if (mode == "min")
                return false;
            else
                return true;
        }

    }

    void swap(int idA, int idB) {
        int valA = heap.get(idA);
        int valB = heap.get(idB);

        int numA = hash.get(valA).num;
        int numB = hash.get(valB).num;
        hash.put(valB, new Node(idA, numB));
        hash.put(valA, new Node(idB, numA));
        heap.set(idA, valB);
        heap.set(idB, valA);
    }

    Integer poll() {
        size_t--;
        Integer now = heap.get(0);
        Node hashnow = hash.get(now);
        if (hashnow.num == 1) {
            swap(0, heap.size() - 1);
            hash.remove(now);
            heap.remove(heap.size() - 1);
            if (heap.size() > 0) {
                siftdown(0);
            }
        } else {
            hash.put(now, new Node(0, hashnow.num - 1));
        }
        return now;
    }

    void add(int now) {
        size_t++;
        if (hash.containsKey(now)) {
            Node hashnow = hash.get(now);
            hash.put(now, new Node(hashnow.id, hashnow.num + 1));

        } else {
            heap.add(now);
            hash.put(now, new Node(heap.size() - 1, 1));
        }

        siftup(heap.size() - 1);
    }

    void delete(int now) {
        size_t--;
        ;
        Node hashnow = hash.get(now);
        int id = hashnow.id;
        int num = hashnow.num;
        if (hashnow.num == 1) {

            swap(id, heap.size() - 1);
            hash.remove(now);
            heap.remove(heap.size() - 1);
            if (heap.size() > id) {
                siftup(id);
                siftdown(id);
            }
        } else {
            hash.put(now, new Node(id, num - 1));
        }
    }

    void siftup(int id) {
        while (parent(id) > -1) {
            int parentId = parent(id);
            if (comparesmall(heap.get(parentId), heap.get(id)) == true) {
                break;
            } else {
                swap(id, parentId);
            }
            id = parentId;
        }
    }

    void siftdown(int id) {
        while (lson(id) < heap.size()) {
            int leftId = lson(id);
            int rightId = rson(id);
            int son;
            if (rightId >= heap.size() || (comparesmall(heap.get(leftId), heap.get(rightId)) == true)) {
                son = leftId;
            } else {
                son = rightId;
            }
            if (comparesmall(heap.get(id), heap.get(son)) == true) {
                break;
            } else {
                swap(id, son);
            }
            id = son;
        }
    }
}

Heap Definition

(Binary) Heap is a special case of balanced binary tree data structure where the root-node key is compared with its children and arranged accordingly.

Min-Heap − Where the value of the root node is less than or equal to either of its children.

Max-Heap − Where the value of the root node is greater than or equal to either of its children.

https://www.tutorialspoint.com/data_structures_algorithms/heap_data_structure.htm

Heap Construction

Max Heap Construction Algorithm

Step 1 − Create a new node at the end of heap.
Step 2 − Assign new value to the node.
Step 3 − Compare the value of this child node with its parent.
Step 4 − If value of parent is less than child, then swap them.
Step 5 − Repeat step 3 & 4 until Heap property holds.

Note − In Min Heap construction algorithm, we expect the value of the parent node to be less than that of the child node.

Max Heap Deletion Algorithm

Deletion in Max (or Min) Heap always happens at the root to remove the Maximum (or minimum) value.

Step 1 − Remove root node.
Step 2 − Move the last element of last level to root.
Step 3 − Compare the value of this child node with its parent.
Step 4 − If value of parent is less than child, then swap them.
Step 5 − Repeat step 3 & 4 until Heap property holds.

Reference

[Heap Data Structures](https://www.tutorialspoint.com/data_structures_algorithms/heap_data_structure.htm\

[GeeksforGeeks](https://www.geeksforgeeks.org/binary-heap/\

[HackerRank Heaps](https://www.hackerrank.com/topics/heaps

PriorityQueue: https://algs4.cs.princeton.edu/24pq/

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